OLT -- Optical Line Terminal -- this is the interface or port in the central office or cabinet that the customers connect to. In our case, this is a card in the Adtran TA5000, which we also use as a DSLAM using another card which delivers ADSL2+, or VDSL2, and POTS. Here's Adtran's data sheet, which includes a photo and application diagram: http://j.mp/1zRmdi6
PON -- Passive Optical Network -- there are two types of fiber networks, point to point (PtP) and passive optical. In a PON, splitters are used to share the OLT port between multiple homes. In our case, 32 homes share a PON segment, connecting to a single OLT interface. PONs can be split at a variety of ratios, from 16:1 (sixteen premises connected to a single OLT port) up to 128:1. Diagram and overview of PON here: http://j.mp/17WJj0l
LCP -- Local Convergence Point -- a cabinet in the neighborhood which passively splits the connection from the OLT from one fiber to 32. The LCP cabinet generally hosts from 288 to 432 homes, and houses splitter cartridges that turn a single fiber from the OLT into 32 fibers which are then plugged into jacks which connect to homes. See an LCP cabinet here: http://j.mp/1Eryj7P
Terminal -- the terminal has multiple ports which homes are connected to, and it is located off the nearby utility pole or in a vault near the home. For underground applications such as Brentwood, we are using the Clearfield FieldShield, see one here: http://j.mp/1FghzyI -- and for aerial applications on overhead wire, we are using a FlexNap type solution, an overview is available here: http://j.mp/1wZ2NIb (note, we do not use FlexNap for underground, only aerial.)
Drop -- the drop cable goes from the terminal to the home. We generally use preconnectorized drop cables, which are plugged into the terminal, pulled (in conduit underground) or dropped (from an aerial pole line) to the home. Here's an example image: http://j.mp/1wKdtzR
GPON -- Gigabit PON -- the layer-2 network protocol running over the PON. GPON is the most common type of PON here in the US. (In Asia, EPON is more common.) GPON offers a shared 2.4Gbps/1Gbps connection for the 32 or so customers in the PON segment. In the future, next-generation PON technologies such as XGPON1 and NGPON2 will
replace GPON and provide 10Gbps capabilities. This means an upgrade of the OLT and customer premise equipment, but it runs over the same fiber, a bit like ADSL1, 2+ and VDSL2 have delivered faster speeds over copper.
ONT -- Optical Network Terminal -- the device on the side of the house which converts GPON into Gigabit Ethernet and delivers POTS voice. This customer premise equipment takes in the fiber, speaks GPON with the OLT, and outputs IP Ethernet, plus phone service. The solution we are using is the Adtran 411, a small "micro" ONT (or μONT) that outputs "one plus one", one Gigabit Ethernet plus one POTS phone jack. Datasheet with photo here: http://j.mp/1DZ2y4T
RG - Residential Gateway -- the router/WiFi access point. Today we use a combined modem/RG to deliver xDSL technologies, as well as to provide routing and WiFi. The residential gateway can also be used with fiber, it's simply fed the Ethernet from the ONT, and the RG takes care of delivering DHCP and NAT, multiple Ethernet ports, and premise WiFi. Today in we are using the Pace 5168, which is our standard VDSL2/bonding modem, which also supports an upstream interface of Gigabit Ethernet instead of xDSL. As with DSL, the RG is managed, and data for troubleshooting is available for support.
I hope this jargon overview helps with the basic outline.
Corning, one of the leading manufacturers of fiber, has a good "Fiber 101" website. It's here: http://j.mp/1X4ilrP - in particular, check out the videos. Their 101 video is here, it's a good intro to fiber itself: http://j.mp/1CDYpVZ -- the Corning YouTube channel is pretty cool too, their vision for the connected, glass-rich future is pretty wild, view it here: http://j.mp/Day-of-glass
Finally, if you'd would like to even learn more about fiber optic networks, the Fiber Optic Association has a "Fiber U" website which provides a lot of tutorial reading material and videos. Some of the material is dated, as technology marches on, but it is a good foundation. You can find it here: http://j.mp/Fiber-U