No, it is nothing like a coax cable for Comcast. It is a fiber optic cable. I am not sure what would be an equivalent one to look for to purchase on your own because the one they install is Sonic Telecom branded. Maybe someone else knows?
For conduit, any low or no voltage conduit will do the job. In fact, really any kind of conduit will do the job. You could even run an EMT conduit. The flexible plastic one I suggested is probably the easiest to run though.